Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras: Action (or Kriya) Yoga
Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras is a splendid article of the philosophical standards, profound certainties, and orders of yoga. It composes the orders into eight “appendages,” or classes, of yoga rehearse. Particular reflection strategies are not given; just sorts of controls are talked about. A large number of its sutras (axioms) depict and remark on these practices. This immortal treatise by an illuminated yogi tends to the widespread human state of obvious detachment from God (avidya, not knowing the Supreme Reality) and demonstrates to us best practices to conquer the psychological inclinations and fantasies that keep us in this condition.
Like tree appendages, which develop in grouping, the principal disciplines start things out. As they create, develop and prove to be fruitful, the following ones are rehearsed. For instance, yama sets one up to hone niyama. Patanjali calls the last three components of niyama “kriya yoga” (“kriya” implies activity). Marshall Govindan takes the position that these three components of kriya (or activity) yoga constitute the entire of Patanjali’s yoga. Be that as it may, every one of the eight appendages are examined in awesome detail in verses 2.30 through 3.8 of the Sutras and give an undeniably total depiction of yoga.
In verse 2.1, Patanjali says: “Kriya yoga comprises of tapas (somberness, self-restraint), svadhyaya (self-study), and Ishvara pranidhana (reverential surrender to God).” (Note: The words in brackets are normally acknowledged interpretations of the Sanskrit expressions.) In the “eight-limbed” way, the kriya yoga practices of niyama go before asana (contemplation pose), pranayama (breath control), pratyahara (withdrawal of the faculties from their articles), dharana (focus), dhyana (continuous, profound fixation), and samadhi (unity with the question of reflection). Consequently, “kriya yoga” is at times translated “starter yoga.” However, the first of the eight appendages, yama, comprises of five abstentions (don’ts), and the five components of niyama are observances (dos), so the kriya yoga practices of niyama can likewise be deciphered “activity yoga,” which infers accomplishing something.
The accompanying remarks from Govindan’s book on the Sutras repudiate Yogananda and other illuminated yogis, who agree that the yoga of Patanjali is the “eight-limbed” way.
Foreword (xiv, xv) by G. Feuerstein: “… while Patanjali’s instructing has turned out to be for all intents and purposes compared with eight-limbed yoga (ashtanga yoga), he himself called his way that of activity yoga (kriya yoga) in pada 2.1.” “The adages in the Yoga Sutras managing particularly with the eight appendages seem to have been cited by Patanjali or in this manner added to his content. There is no genuine agreeable clarification for why Patanjali utilized the name kriya yoga for his lessons.”
Presentation Part 2 (xxiii) by M. Govindan: “Feuerstein has brought up, in any case, that Patanjali’s yoga was not the “ashtanga” or “eight-limbed” yoga, depicted in verses 2.28 to 3.8, as has been regularly thought by generally interpreters. Literary examination has uncovered that these verses were simply cited from another obscure source.”
Despite what might be expected, Patanjali never called his way that of activity (or kriya) yoga; not in verse 2.1 (pada 2.1), nor in some other verse, nor did he say it comprised of something besides ashtanga yoga. What’s more, on the off chance that he had cited the verses relating to ashtanga yoga, it would show that he concurred with them.